This reaction is named after the chemists – Carl Magnus Von Hell, Jacob Volhard and Nikolay Zelinsky. The oxygen from water attacks the carbonyl group, forming an intermediate. An approach using a Strecker synthesis[5] was described as "excellent but tedious"[6] and so an alternative starting with propionic acid was developed. Thus, the given carboxylic acid is halogenated at the alpha carbon. rapidly brominated at the α-carbon. The monobrominated compound is much less The α-bromoalkanoyl bromide has a strongly electrophilic carbonyl carbon because of the electron-withdrawing effects of the two bromides. Hell Volhard Zelinsky Reaction Mechanism is quite different from other halogenation reactions as it takes place in the absence of a halogen carrier. Since the hydroxide ion is now a good leaving group, it is expelled from the tetrahedral intermediate as shown in the reactions below. The bromide ion also removes the hydrogen bonded to the oxygen atom and forms another hydrogen bromide molecule which evaporates from the system due to the absence of water. Reaction Mechanism of Hell-Volhard-Zelinsky Reaction. The reaction is initiated by addition of a catalytic amount of PBr3, after which one molar equivalent of Br2 is added. When the reformation of the carbonyl group occurs the bromide ion is expelled (due to the high reactivity of acyl bromide, it is a good leaving group). In its first step, a combination of bromine and phosphorus tribromide (catalyst) is used to prepare 2-bromopropanoic acid,[7] which is then converted to a racemic mixture of the amino acid product by ammonolysis.[6][8]. The reaction is named after three chemists, the German chemists Carl Magnus von Hell (1849–1926) and Jacob Volhard (1834–1910) and the Russian chemist Nikolay Zelinsky (1861–1953). If the Hell Volhard Zelinsky reaction is conducted at extremely high temperatures, there may be an elimination of hydrogen halide from the product, thereby resulting the formation of beta unsaturated carboxylic acids. 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